Fans of Super Mario play with them. Doctors study them. Chefs all over the world cook with them. They seem overnight, disappear in the same way fast and leave no trace of the visit. Students of this world are called mycologists and now, the fungus is being viewed as a possible treatment for cancer, PTSD-post-traumatic stress disorder and some psychological disorders.
Mushrooms, sometimes called toadstools, are fleshy bodies of fungus that grow above ground on soil or on a food source. They’re separated from the plant world in a kingdom all their own called Myceteae because they do not contain chlorophyll like green plants.
Without the process of photosynthesis, some mushrooms obtain nutrients by deteriorating organic matter or by feeding from higher plants. They’re referred to as decomposers psychedelic mushroom chocolate bars UK. Another sector attacks living plants to kill and consume them and they’re called parasites. Edible and poisonous varieties are mycorrhizal and are observed on or near roots of trees such as for example oaks, pines and firs.
For humans, mushrooms may do one of three things-nourish, heal or poison. Few are benign. The three most popular edible versions of this ‘meat of the vegetable world’ are the oyster, morel and chanterelles.
They’re used extensively in cuisine from China, Korea, Japan and India. Actually, China may be the world’s largest producer cultivating over half of all mushrooms consumed worldwide. All of the edible variety in our supermarkets have been grown commercially on farms and include shiitake, portobello and enoki.
Eastern medicine, especially traditional Chinese practices, has used mushrooms for centuries. In the U.S., studies were conducted in early ’60s for possible approaches to modulate the immune protection system and to inhibit tumor growth with extracts utilized in cancer research.
Mushrooms were also used ritually by the natives of Mesoamerica for thousands of years. Called the ‘flesh of the gods’ by Aztecs, mushrooms were widely consumed in religious ceremonies by cultures through the Americas. Cave paintings in Spain and Algeria depict ritualized ingestion dating back as far as 9000 years. Questioned by Christian authorities on both parties of the Atlantic, psilocybin use was suppressed until Western psychiatry rediscovered it after World War II.
A 1957 article in Life Magazine titled “Seeking the Magic Mushroom” spurred the interest of America. These year, a Swiss scientist named Albert Hofman, identified psilocybin and psilocin as the active compounds in the ‘magic’ mushrooms. This prompted the creation of the Harvard Psilocybin Project led by American psychologist Timothy Leary at Harvard University to examine the consequences of the compound on humans.
In the quarter century that followed, 40,000 patients received psilocybin and other hallucinogens such as for example LSD and mescaline. More than 1,000 research papers were produced. Once the federal government took notice of the growing subculture ready to accept adopting the utilization, regulations were enacted.
The Nixon Administration began regulations, which included the Controlled Substances Act of 1970. What the law states created five schedules of increasing severity under which drugs were to be classified. Psilocybin was put in probably the most restrictive schedule I along with marijuana and MDMA. Each was defined as having a “high potential for abuse, no currently acceptable medical use and deficiencies in accepted safety.”
This ended the investigation for pretty much 25 years until recently when studies exposed for potential use in dealing with or resolving PTSD-post-traumatic stress disorder along with anxiety issues. As of June 2014, whole mushrooms or extracts have been studied in 32 human clinical trials registered with the U.S. National Institutes of Health because of their potential effects on many different diseases and conditions. Some maladies being addressed include cancer, glaucoma, immune functions and inflammatory bowel disease.
The controversial part of research is the use of psilocybin, a naturally occurring chemical using mushrooms. Its ability to help people experiencing psychological disorders such as for example obsessive-compulsive disorder, PTSD and anxiety are still being explored. Psilocybin has been shown to be effective in treating addiction to alcohol and cigarettes in certain studies.